Romans identified the original tribes of Algeria as the Berbers.
Former French overseas department (French Colony).
In 1954 Front de Liberation Nationale (FLN) founded by pan-Algerians
More than a million Algerians were killed in the fight for independence from France in 1962.
Heavily influenced by the cultural impact of Arab civilization.
Hoisin hunter-gatherers are some of the earliest known modern human inhabitants of the area. They were largely replaced by Bantus during the Bantu migrations, though small numbers of Khoisans remain in parts of southern Angola.
The culture is mainly native Bantu mixed with Portuguese aspects.
In 1472 the Portuguese were the first Europeans to visit the country. The hinterland was developed as a source of slaves. By 1700, some 20,000 slaves were being exported annually. After long resisting attempts at colonization, the south became a French protectorate in 1893 while the north was added incrementally between 1895 and 1898. In 1904, present day Benin, then known as Dahomey, became part of the French West African Federation.
The earliest inhabitants of the region were the San, who were followed by the Tswana
The culture is mainly of native Bantu. In common with many of their neighbors, the Tswana suffered greatly from Nguni and Afrikaner incursions in the mid 19th century, leading to the establishment of a British Protectorate in 1885. Coveted in turn by the early Boer republics, by Cecil Rhodes’ British South Africa Company and then by South Africa, Bechuanaland (‘Bechuana’ is synologous with ‘Batswana’, the correct term for the people of Botswana) has often trodden a narrow path between its neighbors’ political, military and economic ambitions.
Burkinafaso, originally known as Upper Volta until its name change in 1983, was a French colony, part of French West Africa. It gained its independence from France in August 1960. The post-independence civilian government was authoritarian, and opposition parties were banned. This eventually led to the country’s first military coup in 1966. For the following 24 years, there was a succession of military regimes, mostly conservative, but including the short lived revolutionary regime of Captain Isidore Thomas Sankara (August 1983 – October 1987). Assassinated in October
1987, Thomas Sankara was succeeded by a fellow junior officer, Captain Blaise Compaore. His takeover of power was widely condemned at home and abroad.
Burundi existed as an independent Kingdom for several centuries before becoming part of German East Africa in 1899. After WWI it became the Belgian-run territory of ‘Ruanda-Urundi’, with neighboring Rwanda, under a League of Nations mandate. Following independence in 01 July 1962, Burundi was run by a series of brutal regimes dominated by the minority Tutsi group. Massacres in 1972 killed an estimated 300,000 of which the majority were Hutu. In 1987 Major Pierre Buyoya, a Tutsi, took control in a bloodless coup and initiated a 5-year transition to democracy.
first ever election, held in 1993, was won by Melchior Ndadaye of the HUTU dominated FRODEBU party.
The French-administered UN trusteeship gained independence on January 1, 1960 from France Before the trusteeship it was a German colony. Modern Cameroon was created as the German protectorate of Kamerun in 1884.
After the First World War, under League of Nations mandates, France was awarded administration of Eastern Cameroon, and Britain Northern and
Southern Cameroons. These mandates were converted in 1946 to UN Trusteeships.
Founder President Ahmadou Ahidjo was a Muslim from the northern part of Cameroon. He had entered politics and was elected to the Cameroon territorial assembly in 1947, winning reelection in 1952 and 1956, in the later years serving as the Cameroon member of the Assembly of the French Union in Paris. El-Hadji Ahmadou Ahidjo then-president of Cameroon, is viewed as one of the founding fathers of the pan-African bloc, the OAU, predecessor of the African Union (AU).
CAPE VERDE (CAP-VERT)
Cape Verde was colonized by the Portuguese started from 1456. The Portuguese used Cape Verdeans as administrators throughout their African empire, and as labor on their shipping lines.
During the 19th century Cape Verdeans used to crew American whalers in the Atlantic. Since this time, Cape Verdeans have had a strong tradition of emigrating to find work. Major droughts and famines have historically also propelled mass migrations from the islands. The country became
independent in 1975, following the collapse of the Portuguese empire after the Carnation Revolution in Lisbon of 1974. The aspiration of the leader of the independence struggle, Amilcar Cabral, for an eventual political union between Cape Verde and Guinea Bissau was never to come to fruition however, and was abandoned in 1981 following the overthrow in Guinea Bissau of President Luis Cabral, also a Cape Verdean.
CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC
Central African Republic (CAR) was a French colony, as Ubanghi-Shari. The territory of present day CAR was called Oubangui-Shari in colonial times, named after the country’s two largest rivers. It was 1 of 4 territories of French Equatorial African Empire, marking the point where French colonial advance to the east was halted. Colonial rule was based on a plantation economy, and the French were often brutal in their treatment of the local population. CAR was formed in 1958 as the French empire
broke up, and became officially independent in 1960. The leader of the country in the 1950s, the priest Barthelemy Boganda, died in a plane crash in 1959. The young teacher David Dacko became President on independence, with strong French backing.
The French extending their power in 1910, made Chad a territory of French equatorial African federation administered from Brazaville (CongoB). Chad, formerly part of France’s Central African colonial administration, became independent on 11 August 1960, although a large part of the north of the country remained under French military administration until 1964. Francois Tombalbaye, the leader of the PPT party, became President. He declared single party rule in 1963. In 1965 the National Front for the Liberation of Chad (FRONILAT), started a rebellion in the north and the east of the country claiming that the government was run
solely in the interests of southerners.
Over the centuries, the islands were invaded by a succession of diverse groups from the coast of Africa, the Persian Gulf, Indonesia and Madagascar. The culture is mainly of European and Arabic. The earliest inhabitants were probably of Malay-Polynesian origin. Later settlers came from mainland Africa, Madagascar and the Arab world. The Shirazis from Persia became dominant in the 15th-16th century, establishing sultanates in the Comoros linked to their trading settlements in Kilwa (on the coast of present-day Tanzania) and Zanzibar, and dealing in spices and slaves
to the Middle East.
Overview Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire): A vast country with immense economic resources at the heart of Africa, Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo) has been at the centre of what could be termed Africa’s world war. Formerly Belgian colony of “Congo Leopoldville”. The Congo is located at the heart of Africa with a narrow strip of land along the Congo river estuary leading to the Atlantic ocean in the west. The Congo is vast, fertile, diverse and mineral rich is also Africa’s second largest country (2.3 million sq km) with over 200 ethnic groups. With just over 70 million people, the Congo has the second largest Christian population in Africa with lots of natural resources.
The first European contact with the country dates from the late 15th century. But it was not until 1880 that an explorer, Pierre de Brazza, concluded the treaties that secured the new territory as a colony for France. In 1910 the Republic of Congo became the administrative centre of the Federation of French Equatorial Africa (AEF). Known later as colony of French Congo in the mid-19th century and established colonial rule in 1905, renamed French Middle (Moyen) Congo with Gabon and then Ubangi-Shari,
Djibouti, a small country in the Horn of Africa, was part of a region colonized by the French and was part of the Land of Punt in the ancient past. In the late-19th century, French Somaliland was established when ruling Somali and Afar sultans signed the land over to France.
From 1862 until 1894, the land to the north of the Gulf of Tadjoura was called Obock and was ruled by Issa Somalis and Afar Sultanates, local authorities with whom France signed various treaties between 1883 and 1887 to first gain a foothold in the region.
It’s name derived from Greece word ‘Aegyptus’ meaning for “dark soil”
Long known for its pyramids and ancient civilization, Egypt is the largest Arab country and has played a central role in Middle Eastern politics in modern times.
Arabs introduced Islam and Arabic in 7th century and ruled the hitherto predominantly Christian country for six centuries.
Mamlukis took control around 1250.
Egypt was conquered by the Ottoman Turks in 1517.
After completion of the Suez Canal, Egypt became a transport hub but also fell in debts.
Britain took over control of Egypt in 1882.
It is one of the tiniest countries in Africa with mainland and five Islands. At around 1472, Portuguese navigator Fernão do Pó arrived at the spot that has become Malabo area and surrounding coast mainly visited by Portuguese traders. Portugal assigned the rights to offer Spain a foothold to conduct slave trade. The Island of Bioko was then ceded to the Spanish in 1777 by its original Portuguese colonizers. Spain then went on to settle the mainland province of Rio Muni in 1844. In 1904 the 2 territories were united as the Western African
Territories and later renamed Spanish Guinea.
Overview & Diary Refreshes Formerly it was part of the Abyssinian Empire Eritrea (formerly known as “Bahr-Negash” before being renamed to “Eritrea” by Italian colonizers from 1890–1941, then became under UN mandated British administration, and later under Ethiopian rule. Eritrea is a country with a diverse climate and Geography, has been under Italian, British and Ethiopian rule. Most Eritreans in especially in lowlands except the Sahaba (Family of Prophet Mohammed sent from Mecca) were
Christians, they were converted islam by Turkish and Egyptians. If you asked any Eritrean Moslem from the lowlands his great grand father was a Christian.
Overview Bantu peoples migrated southwest to the area of Mozambique in the 16th century. A number of clans broke away from the main body in the 18th century and settled in Swaziland. In the 19th century, these clans organised as a tribe, partly because they were in constant conflict with the Zulu. The Swazi nation has been led by a monarchy since about the middle of the seventeenth century. In 1890, Swaziland was brought under the protection and administration of the British Governor of the Transvaal. It was assumed that it would in time be incorporated into South Africa, though not against the wishes of its inhabitants.
Overview & Diary Refreshes – Written with dual (English/Amharic) characters Origins of names: Ethiopia Overview France ruled what was to become Gabone from 1839. In 1849 slaves freed by the French founded the Gabonese capital Libreville French meaning for Free Town. In 1910 Gabone became one of the 4 territories of the Federation of French Equatorial Africa (AEF) along with Chad, Congo (Brazzaville), and the Central African Republic. Gabon achieved independence in 1960, with Leon Mba elected President in 1961. He was deposed in the only coup in Gabon’s history in 1964, but was restored after French intervention. His Vice-President and hand-picked successor, Albert-Bernard Bongo, took over on his death in 1967 and declared Gabon a one-party state, which it remained until 1990.
Overview France ruled what was to become Gabone from 1839. In 1849 slaves freed by the French founded the Gabonese capital Libreville French meaning for Free Town. In 1910 Gabone became one of the 4 territories of the Federation of French Equatorial Africa (AEF) along with Chad, Congo (Brazzaville), and the Central African Republic. Gabon achieved independence in 1960, with Leon Mba elected President in 1961. He was deposed in the only coup in Gabon’s history in 1964, but was restored after French intervention. His Vice-President and hand-picked successor, Albert-Bernard Bongo, took over on his death in 1967 and declared Gabon a one-party state, which it remained until 1990. President Bernard Bongo converted to Islam in 1973, taking the name Al-Hadj Omar Bongo.
Overview The Gambia shares historical roots with many other West African nations in the slave trade, which was key to the establishment of a colony on the Gambia River, first by the Portuguese and later by the British. The Gambia became a British protectorate in 1894 and a British Colony in 1902. It gained independence from Britain on 18 February 1965, with Dawda Jawara as Prime Minister. On 24 April 1970, The Gambia became a Republic following a referendum and Jawara was elected as President. Jawara and the People’s Progressive Party dominated Gambian politics, until 1994 (See Below), although the country retained a multi-party system,
Overview A Deeper Look Into The Life Of Mansa Musa – The Richest Human Being Who Ever Lived AFRICANGLOBE – When we think of the wealthiest people in the world, we most often think of the Waltons (of Wal-Mart fame), Warren Buffett, or Bill Gates. However, if you go a bit further back in history, you’ll discover that the wealth of the kings, queens, and rulers of yesteryear trumps the bank accounts of most modern day millionaires and even billionaires by a mile. In fact, during his time, one man controlled more wealth than Bill Gates, Warren Buffett, and the most wealthy member of the Walton family, Sam Walton, combined. That man was Mansa Musa I.
Overview Guinea became a French colony in the late 19th century. It became independent in October 1958, 2 years earlier than the other French African colonies, because it rejected de Gaulle’s offer of membership of the French Community (a short-lived structure which gave France’s colonies limited autonomy within the French empire). Guinea was the only country of the French African Empire to reject de Gaulle’s proposal, and the country’s historic “Non” led to it being abandoned by the French who immediately cut all ties. This reinforced a proud sense of independent nationhood in Guinea which still resonates today. Ahmed Sekou Touré, who became the first President, ruled as an autocrat and suppressed opposition, often on the pretext of defending the country against destabilisation by foreign powers.
Overview Historically, Guinea-Bissau was known as the ‘Slave Coast’ due to its strategic positioning as a trading post. Guinea-Bissau was a Portuguese colony until 1974. The African Party for the Independence of GuineaBissau and Cape Verde (PAIGC) fought a protracted guerrilla war for the independence of both colonies. It was led by Amilcar Cabral. He was assassinated by dissidents in his own movement in 1973. However, Guinea-Bissau unilaterally declared its independence under the leadership of his brother, Luis Cabral, and, following the carnation revolution in Lisbon in 1974, Portugal withdrew its troops and recognised the independence of Guinea Bissau. Luis Cabral governed Guinea-Bissau as a one-party state, with socialist policies but a non-aligned foreign policy.
IVORY COAST (COTE D’ IVOIRE)
The Europeans came to the area to trade in Ivory and Slaves and estimated that local kingdoms were gave way to French inluence in the late eighteenth century. Côte d’Ivoire is the present name of formerly Ivory Coast, it was part of French colonial West Africa. It was a major area of agricultural development under French rule, attracting immigrant workers from throughout the French African Empire. It gained independence from France in 1960, retaining close ties with the former colonial power through a number of bilateral agreements including membership of the Franc Zone, a defence pact, and provision for a French military base in the country.
Overview & Diary Refreshes Kenya became a British protectorate in 1895 and a colony in 1920. White settlement was encouraged and by the 1940s European settlers had achieved considerable prosperity. African population growth resulted in increasing pressure for land. Jomo Kenyatta whos known for his quotation “When the Missionaries arrived, the Africans had the land and the Missionaries had the Bible. They taught how to pray with our eyes closed. When we opened them, they had the land and we had the Bible” formed the first national organisation in 1944.
Overview It is an enclave within the “Republic of South Africa”. The kingdom of Lesotho was founded by Moshoeshoe I a 19th century leader faced by Boer encroachment onto Basotho grazing lands from one direction, and violent population upheavals precipitated by the military rise of Shaka Zulu in Natal from another. Moshoeshoe I, then a minor chief, initially led his people to a mountain refuge where they established a new settlement; subsequently he established a policy of affording haven to refugees willing to help with defence. In 1824 he shifted his headquarters to a more easily defensible hilltop called Thaba-Bosiu.
Overview Liberia is the only African country that was not colonised by a foreign power (Ethiopia shares that to an extent, having only been briefly occupied by Italy from 1937 to 1941). Liberia was established as an independent state by freed slaves from America in 1847. They were joined by Africans released from slave ships off the West African coast. For more than 130 years from its founding, politics were dominated by the small minority of the population descended from these original settlers, known as the Americo-Liberians or Congo. During that era, Liberia was renowned for its stability, its functioning economy and the large amount of foreign investment it attracted in the rubber plantations and the iron ore mines. But the indigenous Africans were largely excluded from political power.
Italy took over the area around Tripoli from the Ottoman Turks until 1943.
It was relinquished by Italy in 10th February, 1947, and from UK, France under United Natons trusteeship in 24th December, 1951.
On December 24, 1951 Libya officially achieved independence with the Senussi or Sanussi (Arabic: السنوسية) refers to a Muslim political-religious order in Libya.
Headship since independence; Monarchial Head;-
Full name Muhammad Idris bin Muhammad al-Mahdi as-Senussi. The Grand Senussi’s grandson King Idris Muhammad of Libya known also as Sayyid Muhammad Idris bin Sayyid Muhammad al-Mahdi alSenussi was the King of Libya (1951 to 1969). He was a member of the Walad Sidi Abdalla tribe, and the Chief of the Senussi Muslims.
Overview Madagascar is the world’s fourth largest island. The people of Madagascar are of mixed African and Malay-Indonesian ancestry migrated to Madagascar at about 700 AD. Although Madagascar is geographically close to mainland Africa, its history and culture are distinct. The first settlers are believed to have arrived from the area of Indonesia in about the 5th century. The forebears of the present population were from South-East Asia and from East Africa in equal measure, with the Asian element predominant in the highlands, and the African (and Arab) element predominant in the coastal areas. While people and culture represent a unique blend, the nearest relation to the Malagasy language, which bears few African traces, is today spoken only in southern Borneo.
Overview Early human inhabitants of what is now Malawi date to 8000–2000 BC Bantu-speaking peoples migrated there between the 1st and 4th centuries AD. Malawi takes its current name from the Maravi (which means ‘rays of light’) empire which developed on the shore of Lake Malawi in the 16th and 17th centuries. In the 19th century Maravi was devastated by the arrival of Nguni invaders from the south, and Muslim slavers from the east, leading to the establishment of the British Protectorate of Nyasaland at the end of the 19th century. Christian missions, inspired by Livingstone’s appeal to end the slave-trade, played a key role in promoting British intervention.
Overview Although in its current form Mali is a creation of the French Empire (called French Soudan under colonial rule), Malians continue to draw a sense of national pride from the heritage of the Songay and Malian Empires. The country became an independent republic in 1960 after having briefly joined with Senegal in 1959 in the Federation of Mali. The first head of State, President Modibo Keita, immediately declared a single party state and pursued Marxist Socialist policies supported by alliances with the Soviet Bloc. Keita’s regime was overthrown by a military coup in 1968. The coup leader Colonel Moussa Traore promised a return to civilian rule, but in the event continued the oppressive single party rule of his predecessor until his overthrow in early 1991.
Overview Formerly known as “Ile de France”. It had been re-named by the French when they captured the country Mauritania has often been described as a bridge b/n the Arab and Black African worlds. France gained control of the region known as now Mauritania in 1817, and established French protectorate in 1903, it was added to French west Africa in 1904 and later a colony in 1920. France gained control of the coastal region in 1817, and in 1904 a formal French protectorate was extended over the territory.
Overview Arab sailors visited Mauritius during the Middle Ages. The Portuguese were probably the first Europeans to land, in around 1511, but they did not settle the island. The first colonists were the Dutch who settled in 1638 and named the island Mauritius after Prince Maurice of Nassau. The Dutch, who eventually abandoned Mauritius in about 1710, are remembered for having introduced sugar cane to the island. The French occupied between 1715 and 1810, renaming the country Isle de France. In 1810 the British took possession during the Napoleonic Wars (the French ceded the island under treaty in 1814) and reverted to the name Mauritius.
Overview The Spanish seized part of Moroccan terrtory in 1859. It was made part of a French protectorate from 1912 until the independence struggle with Spain and mainly with France ended successfully in March, 1956, colonial years that had lasted 44 years. Headship since independence on 3rd March, 1956; Monarchial Head In the late 1970s, Morocco annexed Western Sahara.
In the 1990s, the country established a bicameral legislature which met for the first time in 1997. But legitimate authority remains in the hands of the monarchial head.
Overview Bantu speaking tribes migrated to Mozambique in the first millennium, and Arab and Swahili traders settled the region thereafter. The Portuguese arrived on the East African coast in the early 16th century, displacing Arab rulers from many of the towns. They established settlements along the Zambezi, but were for centuries largely confined to the river valley and the coastal strip. After many failed attempts to penetrate inland (particularly to control the gold and silver mines of what is now Zimbabwe), they made a concerted effort to conquer the interior in the late 19th century.
Overview The Bantu-speaking Ovambo and Herero population migrated from the north in about the 14th century AD. The San are generally assumed to have been the earliest inhabitants of the region. Later inhabitants include the Nama and the Damara or Berg Dama. Germany declared a protectorate over the area in 1884. Colonial settlement provoked a series of uprisings at the beginning of the 20th century, in which the Herero and the Nama peoples were almost wiped out. During the First World War South Africa, in pursuit of its own colonial ambitions, invaded and occupied German South-West Africa and was awarded a League of Nations Mandate.
Overview Niger played an important role in the trade between North Africa and kingdoms farther south from the 14th century onwards because of its extensive mineral resources. The nomadic, animal-breeding Tuaregs controlled most of the north and after a drought in the 18th century, extended their dominance southwards, making contact with agriculturalists. Niger was a French colony, part of French West Africa. The French colonised Niger in the late 1800s, but not before meeting heavy resistance, particularly from the Tuaregs. Niger was granted its independence in August, 1960 but retained strong ties with France through a series of bilateral agreements, including a defence agreement, and its membership of the Franc Zone.
Overview Rwanda existed as an independent, highly centralised state for several centuries, ruled by a King and noble elite drawn largely from the minority Tutsi (15%) group. It became part of German East Africa in 1899. Following the First World War, it became part of the Belgian-administered territory of ‘Ruanda-Urundi’, with neighbouring Burundi, under a League of Nations mandate. The colonial authorities initially consolidated the power of the existing Tutsi elite. In an attempt to head off claims for independence from the ruling elite, the Hutu majority was later encouraged to participate in the political life of the country.
SAO TOME & PRINCIPE
Overview Sao Tome and Principe is a Portuguese-speaking island nation consisting of two islands; Sao Tome and Principe, off the north-western coast of Gabon.It was colonized by the Portuguese in the late fifteenth century and were used in the trade and transshipment of manpower (slaves), until slavery officially abolished in 1875. Sao Tomé & Principe was part of Portugal’s African possessions for over 500 years. São Tomé & Principe: The second smallest country in Africa. Slave Trade & The Portuguese Slave Trading in the 16th, 17th, and 19th Century.
Overview First it was explored by the Portuguese in 1445 and in 1638 the French established a trading post around in exportation of Gold, slaves & ivories, during the period several hundred thousands of Africans have died as a result of being inslaved to the west or who were caught up in the violence and chaos unleashed as their communities suffered destruction during the raids by slaving European gangs. The areas of Senegal around Dakar and St Louis, colonised in the 1840s, were the earliest parts of the formal French empire in sub-Saharan Africa. Dakar was the capital of French West Africa from the early 1900s.
Overview A group of volcanic islands in the Indian Ocean. The Seychelles islands remained uninhabited for more than 150 years until the 17th century, most Seychellois are (Creoles) descendants of early French settlers and the African slaves brought to the Seychelles in the 19th century by the British, who freed them from slave ships on the East African coast. They were proclaimed a French colony in 1756 but the first French settlers did not arrive until 1770; the French ruled the islands with delegated powers from Mauritius. Both the British and the French were keenly interested in the strategic value of the islands and during the late 1790s and early 1800s Seychelles changed hands several times.
Overview Sierra Leone literally meaning for “the mountain of Lions”, became a British colony in 1808 and a protectorate in 1896. Sierra Leone was founded as a state by returned slaves from Britain and North America in 1787. The colony of Sierra Leone (roughly the current day Western Province around Freetown) was administered by the British. Became a British colony in 1808 and a protectorate in 1896. Heavily influenced by a blend of native Bantu and western culture. The hinterland came under British control as a protectorate in 1896.
Overview Introduction & Background Information Somalia, officially the Somali Federal republic, is located on the Horn of Africa in East Africa. It’s bordered by Djibouti to the northwest, Kenya to the southwest, the Gulf of Aden with Yemen to the north, the Indian Ocean to the east, and Ethiopia to the west. At present ethnic-Somali population are divided among different countries (Somalia, Djibouti, Ethiopia, and northeastern Kenya) that were artificially and some might say arbitrarily partitioned by the former colonial powers.
Overview Dutch traders landed at the southern tip of modern day South Africa in 1652 and established a stopover point on the spice route between the Netherlands and the East, founding the city of Capetown. Slavery In South Africa Slavery in South Africa began in 1652 under Dutch rule, after that in 1795 the Great Britain took over the Cape of Good Hope area in 1806, many of the Dutch settlers (the Boers) trekked north to found their own republics. It is a popular misconception that slavery in South Africa was mild compared to America and the European colonies in the Far East.
Overview As Sudan prepared to gain independence from joint British and Egyptian rule in 1956, southern leaders accused the new authorities in Khartoum of backing out of promises to create a federal system, and of trying to impose an Islamic and Arabic identity. In 1955, southern army officers mutinied, sparking off a civil war between the south, led by the Anya Nya guerrilla movement, and the Sudanese government.. The conflict only ended when the Addis Ababa peace agreement of 1972 accorded the south a measure of autonomy.
Overview & Diary Refreshes Sudan entered the Twentieth Century ruled as an Anglo-Egyptian Condominium, a unique constitutional status dating from 1899. After the First World War, Sudanese nationalist sentiment grew drawing inspiration from Egyptian nationalism. The Mahdist Movement The Mahdi, his real name was Mohammad Ahmad Ibn El Sayed Abdullah, was born in Dongola, in Northern Sudan, in 1844. He followed the true tradition of the warrior/religious leaders of Islam. Like desert sand storm he appeared suddenly and inexplicably out of nowhere, and, by some
strange process of attraction, generated an ever-increasing force as he moved along.
Overview The modern Tanzanian state is formed from the former colony of Tanganyika, on the mainland, and the former Protectorate of Zanzibar. Tanganyika was first a German colony, then a League of Nations mandated territory under British administration and later a UN trust territory, remaining under British control. In 1954, Julius Nyerere founded the Tanganyikan African National Union (TANU), which became the focus of African nationalism. Constitutional changes increased the voice of the African population. Elections were held in 1958-59 and 1960 which resulted in overwhelming victory for TANU.
Overview In an 1884 treaty, present-day Togo became a German protectorate. Current day Togo was, part of the German protectorate of Togoland from 1884, through a treaty. The status was formalised in 1905. In 1919, the French took over the eastern part of Togoland under a league of Nations Mandate. The British took over the western part. In 1956, in a UN organised plebiscite, the majority of the population of British Togoland chose to merge with the neighbouring colony of Gold coast. The following year that region became part of the newly independent state of Ghana.
Overview Tunisia became part of the Ottoman Empire in the 16th Century and was a French protectorate from 1881 to 1956. Origins of name – Named after Tunis the present-day capital, but in ancient times a powerful city-state and successor to ancient Carthage Gained independence from France on the 20th of March, 1956. Headship since independence; Head of instrumental self-administration Tunisia became Republic in 1957 with Habib Ahmed Bourguiba, who led the independence movement it’s founder-President.
Overview Uganda developed from the 19th century kingdom of Buganda, which was declared a British protectorate in 1894. The protectorate was extended to other traditional kingdoms in 1896 and the rest of the country brought under central administration by 1914. British administration followed the principles of indirect rule, which included special measures of autonomy for the Baganda. African representation in government increased steadily after 1945. This met some resistance from the traditionalists and separatists among the Baganda.
WESTERN SAHARA (SAHARAWI)
Overview & Diary Refreshes
After an agreement among the European colonial powers at the Berlin Conference in 1884 on the division of spheres of influence in Africa, Spain seized control of The Western Sahara and established it as a Spanish colony.
POLISARIO’s declared independence, on the 27th of February, 1976.
Morocco annexed the former Spanish Sahara.
Overview The area of modern Zambia was inhabited by Khoisan hunter-gatherers until around AD 300, when technologically advanced migrating tribes began to displace or absorb them. Zambia’s geographical position kept it largely free of foreign influences until the 19th century. The Lunda and Bemba kingdoms, in what is now northern Zambia, were the largest precolonial polities, joined from 1838 by the Lozi, whose kingdom still survives today (as Barotseland). As elsewhere in southern Africa, there was also an influx of Ngoni settlers at about the same time.
Overview Present day Zimbabwe was the site of a large and complex African civilisation under Mwene Mutapa empire in the 13th and 14th centuries. Widely believed it was populated by descendants of the Bantu tribes, who had migrated from the north around the 10th century. Until the 19th century, the area covering modern day Zimbabwe was ruled by a succession of Shona kingdoms, including the builders of the famous Great Zimbabwe complex (from which the country takes its name). By the 1820s internal and external pressures had led to the collapse of the Shona polities, laying the country open to occupation.